Japanese Basic Grammar Guide Part III – Japanese Particles (No, To, Mo, Kara, Made, Ga) の、と、から、まで、が

5. no – の

の Can be used to express possession of an object – the following sentences show that it is an easy sentence pattern to learn and remember.
watashi no kuruma – My car.

tomodachi no hon – My friend’s book.
の Can also be used to express affiliation to an organization in Japanese such as the following sentences.
A-sha no shain – An employee of Company A
A 社社員
A-Daigaku no gakusei – A Student of University A
Further to this – の can be used to describe an attribute of a person or object’s identity.  Just like in English – we have the ability to do this by saying that someone is a “Japanese Teacher” – we can use の in the same way.
[Attribute (Type/Nature)]
Nihongo no sensei – Japanese Teacher
ichigo no shabetto – Strawberry Sherbert
Additionally, の can be used for Apposition / when there is a relationship between two people
Tomodachi no Yoko-San – My friend yoko
otto no Tomu – My Husband Tom
There is one more use for the の particle – which is using it as a pronoun.  We have the same pattern in english – we can say “the X one”.
akai no – The red one.
atsui no – The hot one.

6. to – と

The to – と particle in Japanese can be used to signify partnership in action – or to form pairs – here are several examples of the Japanese particle in use.
[A partner in an action]
Tomodachi to eiga o mimashita. – I saw a movie with my friend.
Eri-san to kekkon shimashita. – I married Eri-san.
Shacho to hanashimasu. – I will speak with the CEO/Boss.
[Parallel phrases] pan to tomago – Bread and Eggs

7. mo – も

The mo も particle is used to signify similarity and agreement in Japanese. Additionally it can be used to add emphasis to a particular statement in Japanese.
[Sameness / Agreement]
Kore mo onegaishimasu  – I’ll have this too please.
Watashi mo eiga ga suki desu. – I also like movies.
Wain o go-hon mo nomimashita. – I drank five bottles of wine!

8. kara – から

Kara is used in Japanese to signify the origin of duration or origin of motion.
[Origin of duration or motion] Uchi kara gakko made sanjuppun kakarimasu.  – It takes thirty minutes to get from our house to the school.

9. made – まで

Just like with Kara – Made (まで) is used to signify the end point of a duration or motion.
[Termination of duration or motion]
Ku-ji kara juichi-ji made benkyo shimasu. – I study from nine until eleven o’clock.

10. Ga – が

The Ga (が) Particle can be used for several cases.  Although the particle “ga” essentially follows the subject of a sentence, it sometimes provides a function similar to other particles.  Because this can make “ga” confusing to use, try to remember the five patterns below.
[The subject of an interrogative sentence that uses an interrogative word]
Dare ga kimasu ka – Who is coming?
Itsu ga ii desu ka.  – When would be a good time?
いついいですか ?
[The subject of a sentence denoting possession or location]
Uchi ni pasokon ga arimasu.  – We have a computer at our home.
Toire ni neko ga imasu.  – There is a cat in the restroom.
[The subject of an embedded clause modifying a noun phrase] Kore wa Betoben ga tsukutta kyoku desu. – This is a piece of music that is composed by Beethoven.
[Objects] (1) suki, kirai, jouzu, heta (Like, Dislike, Be Good At, Be Bad At)
Sakka ga suki desu.  I like Soccer.
(2) wakaru, dekiru, mieru, kikoeru (understand, can do, can see, can hear)
Koko kara Fuji-san o miru koto ga dekimasu.  – It is possible to see Mount Fuji from here.
(3) hoshii, shitai (want/need, want to do)
Atarashii terebi ga hoshii desu.  – I want a new TV.
Nihongo ga benkyou shitai desu.  – I want to study Japanese.
[An aspect of part of the subject.] Imoto wa kami ga nagai.  – My younger sister has long hair.
Nihon wa hanzai ga sukunai.

Nihongo Fun & Easy, image, photo, illustration, picture

Nihongo Fun & Easy

Content originally appeared in Nihongo Fun & Easy – written by Teachers from Coto Japanese Academy – Get it here:

If you find this article helpful, Check out our other Basic Japanese Grammar Guide Series
Basic Grammar Guide Part I
Basic Grammar Guide Part II
Basic Grammar Guide Part IV

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