Japanese Basic Grammar Guide Part III – Japanese Particles (No, To, Mo, Kara, Made, Ga) の、と、から、まで、が
Japanese Grammar Particles – の、と、から、まで、が of these Japanese particles in use.
5. no – の
の Can be used to express possession of an object – the following sentences show that it is an easy sentence pattern to learn and remember.
watashi no kuruma – My car.
tomodachi no hon – My friend’s book.
の Can also be used to express affiliation to an organization in Japanese such as the following sentences.
A-sha no shain – An employee of Company A
A-Daigaku no gakusei – A Student of University A
Further to this – の can be used to describe an attribute of a person or object’s identity. Just like in English – we have the ability to do this by saying that someone is a “Japanese Teacher” – we can use の in the same way.
Nihongo no sensei – Japanese Teacher
ichigo no shabetto – Strawberry Sherbert
Additionally, の can be used for Apposition / when there is a relationship between two people
Tomodachi no Yoko-San – My friend yoko
otto no Tomu – My Husband Tom
There is one more use for the の particle – which is using it as a pronoun. We have the same pattern in english – we can say “the X one”.
akai no – The red one.
atsui no – The hot one.
6. to – と
The to – と particle in Japanese can be used to signify partnership in action – or to form pairs – here are several examples of the Japanese particle in use.
[A partner in an action]
Tomodachi to eiga o mimashita. – I saw a movie with my friend.
Eri-san to kekkon shimashita. – I married Eri-san.
Shacho to hanashimasu. – I will speak with the CEO/Boss.
7. mo – も
The mo も particle is used to signify similarity and agreement in Japanese. Additionally it can be used to add emphasis to a particular statement in Japanese.
[Sameness / Agreement]
Kore mo onegaishimasu – I’ll have this too please.
Watashi mo eiga ga suki desu. – I also like movies.
Wain o go-hon mo nomimashita. – I drank five bottles of wine!
8. kara – から
Kara is used in Japanese to signify the origin of duration or origin of motion.[Origin of duration or motion] Uchi kara gakko made sanjuppun kakarimasu. – It takes thirty minutes to get from our house to the school.
9. made – まで
Just like with Kara – Made (まで) is used to signify the end point of a duration or motion.
[Termination of duration or motion]
Ku-ji kara juichi-ji made benkyo shimasu. – I study from nine until eleven o’clock.
10. Ga – が
The Ga (が) Particle can be used for several cases. Although the particle “ga” essentially follows the subject of a sentence, it sometimes provides a function similar to other particles. Because this can make “ga” confusing to use, try to remember the five patterns below.
[The subject of an interrogative sentence that uses an interrogative word]
Dare ga kimasu ka – Who is coming?
Itsu ga ii desu ka. – When would be a good time?
[The subject of a sentence denoting possession or location]
Uchi ni pasokon ga arimasu. – We have a computer at our home.
Toire ni neko ga imasu. – There is a cat in the restroom.
[The subject of an embedded clause modifying a noun phrase]
Kore wa Betoben ga tsukutta kyoku desu. – This is a piece of music that is composed by Beethoven.
(1) suki, kirai, jouzu, heta (Like, Dislike, Be Good At, Be Bad At)
Sakka ga suki desu. I like Soccer.
(2) wakaru, dekiru, mieru, kikoeru (understand, can do, can see, can hear)
Koko kara Fuji-san o miru koto ga dekimasu. – It is possible to see Mount Fuji from here.
(3) hoshii, shitai (want/need, want to do)
Atarashii terebi ga hoshii desu. – I want a new TV.
Nihongo ga benkyou shitai desu. – I want to study Japanese.
[An aspect of part of the subject.]
Imoto wa kami ga nagai. – My younger sister has long hair.
Nihon wa hanzai ga sukunai.