Basic Japanese Grammar – Basic Sentence Patterns

Posted by on January 29, 2018 – Japanese Study

 

Basic Japanese Grammar – Basic Sentence Patterns Cheat Sheet

  • Sentence Structure

In this guide to Basic Japanese Grammar – we will explain in broad terms, the most used Japanese sentence patterns and how to alter them to change them from positive statements to negative statements, as well as how to ask questions while using them.

We will continue this series with part II – Grammar Particles

 

Basic Sentence Patterns

In broad terms, Japanese sentences can be divided into the following three patterns.

Watashi wa Nihon-jin desu. I am a Japanese person. [Noun Phrase]

私は日本人です。

 

Meari-san wa isogashii desu. Mary-san is busy.  [Adjective phrase]

メアリーさんは忙しいです。

 

Tanaka-san wa ramen o tabemasu. Tanaka-san eats ramen. [Verb Phrase]

田中さんはラメンを食べます。

 

“Desu” has a similar function to “to be” in English, and comes at the end of Noun and Adjective Phrases.  Verb Phrases end with [-masu].

“Wa” is a particle that denotes topics and subjects. (The particles “ga” and “mo” can also indicate a subject.  

 

Negative Sentences

Negative Sentences are made by modifying the end of a predicate, which is typically the last part of a sentence.  This grammatical structure is the reason that one must listen to the very end of a Japanese sentence to know whether it is negative or affirmative.

 

Watashi wa Nihon-jin jya-arimasen. I am not a Japanese person. [Neg. Noun Phrase]

私は日本人じゃありません.

 

Meari-San wa isogashiku nai desu.  Mary-San is not busy. [Negative Adjective Phrase]

メアリーさんは忙しくないです.   

 

Tanaka-San wa ramen o tabemasen. Tanaka-San does not eat ramen. [Neg. Verb Phrase]

田中さんはラーメンを食べません.

 

Interrogative Sentences (Questions)

Attach “ka” to the end of a Declarative Sentence to create an Interrogative Sentence.

 

Meari-san wa isogashii desu ka.        Is Mary san busy?

メアリーさんは忙しいですか?

 

Tanaka-san wa ramen o tabemasu ka.        Does Tanaka-San eat ramen?

田中さんはラーメンを食べますか?

 

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